Pinang International | 菁仔ê世界 | 檳榔國際

To content | To menu | To search

Tag - Taiwan

Entries feed - Comments feed

2013-06-01

Thank You, @evan and identi.ca!

Soon identi.ca will convert to pump.io. At this moment of transition, I want to thank @evan for creating the software powering identi.ca, and for running the site for the last 5 years. I joined identi.ca in October 2008 (thanks, Jon!). Soon I realize the people on identi.ca is an amazing bunch. I learn a lot from them, and hope I have been useful to some in some way. In identi.ca I have been learning to express myself digitally, and I thank @evan and the identi.ca community for that.

Taiwanese of my generation are almost uniformally bad at communicating to others. We were brought up in an authoritative regime; the martial law in Taiwan was lifted only after I graduated from the university. Many of us were taught to keep our mouths tight when we were young. Even after growing up, I still do not communicate that much, even and in particular to family members and close friends. There was a time when speaking too much to strangers would surely get you into trouble. I knew that personally. When the time has changed, my generation still do not speak well, and do not speak much.

It is within this context I started to experience identi.ca as a public media for personal expression. I like the way people have conversations in the open. I am fascinated by the broad knowledge and the pointed views in this community. I like I can speak to myself and to an unknown audience at the same time. And I read the many signals and enjoy their ambiguities.

This has been an incredible experience. Thank you, @evan and identi.ca!

2013-03-15

Free Bassel 釋放巴賽

Bassel Khartabil was detained in Syria on March 15, 2012. He remains not free to this day. Before his detention I met him twice at international conferences, and I immediately recognized him as a colleague and as an ally.

If he is a stranger to you, I encourage you to learn more about him. His website bassel.ws has been offline but a snapshot was taken by the Internet Archive on Jan 6, 2012. His works are about Art, Commons, Movies, Web, and Free Culture — that is how he categorized his posts on his blog. It is truly sad that a person who is working to help ideas and information flow freely is himself imprisoned apparently for no reason.

This is injustice to him and to all who work like him. Bassel must be freed, so will we.

More about Bassel at Amnesty International (Taiwan).
Photos about Amnesty International Taiwan's Syria Urgent Action on freeing Bassel last October.

Please sign the letter at freebassel.org.

Free Bassel!! & Free Syria!! (Drawing by Candy Bird TW) 釋放巴賽!!敘利亞要自由!!(本畫作者:Candy Bird TW)
Free Bassel!! & Free Syria!! (Drawing by Candy Bird TW).
釋放巴賽!!敘利亞要自由!!(本畫作者: Candy Bird TW)。

釋放巴賽

「巴賽.卡爾塔畢」(Bassel Khartabil)在2012年3月15日那一天在敘利亞遭受羈押。直到今天他還未獲得自由。他被羈押之前,兩次在國際會議上我見過他,我馬上認得他是同一行也是同一夥的。

如果他對你來說是個陌生人,我鼓勵你多認識他。他的網站 bassel.ws 已經連不上線,不過「網際網路典藏組織」(Internet Archive)留存了一份這網站在2012年1月6日當時的面貌。他的工作包括藝術、資源共享、電影、全球資訊網、以及自由文化——部落格上他的文章,他是這樣分類的。致力於理念與資訊的自由流動的工作者,自己卻沒有緣由地身陷牢獄,這讓人十分悲傷。

這對他不公,對所有像他一樣工作的人,更是不平。巴賽必須得到自由,而我們也得自由。

國際特赦組織台灣分會)網站上關於巴賽的資訊。
國際特赦組織台灣分會去年十月為援救巴賽所舉行的「敘利亞緊急行動」的活動紀錄

請上網站 freebassel.org 簽署聲援信。

2011-11-02

CC Taiwan Visited CC China Mainland

We regret this entry is not available in English.


就在10月31日週一,趁著到北京出席國際會議的機會,台灣創用CC計畫(CC Taiwan)主持人莊庭瑞拜訪了知識共享中國大陸項目(CC China Mainland)負責人、中國人民大學法學院王春燕教授,並參與了由王春燕教授主持的「CC沙龍之網絡資訊與共享文化」活動。這項活動安排在週一下午3:30到5:30於北京謀智網絡技術有限公司(Mozilla Online)附設的謀智空間舉行。

於這項活動中,清華大學工業工程系教授顧學雍教授介紹了創客聯盟(toyhouse.cc),王盛林與肖文鵬兩位先生介紹了創客空間(BEIJING MAXPACE)。兩者都推展講究動手作、協力開發的實體與網絡空間(hacker/maker space)。劉丹先生以「開放與童稚」為題,講述 Open Party 這項由北京多個技術社群共同舉辦的 Unconference 型態的社交活動。中文維基百科活躍使用者鄒磊先生,以及科學松鼠會的鄭然先生,都以文稿編寫協作平台為例,說明創用CC授權這類公眾授權條款的必要性。莊庭瑞提出關於網絡資源(web resources)流通一些觀察,尤其在內容與社會網絡服務商集中化、整合化之後,對於公眾授權條款採用上的可能影響。莊庭瑞也介紹幾項個人喜好的台灣計畫:自由軟體鑄造場(openfoundry.org)EzGo9 自由軟體應用推廣光碟,以及 PeoPo 公民新聞平台(peopo.org)。這三項計畫都採用創用CC授權條款散布部份內容。

這項活動雖然預計到5:30結束,但是因為互動熱烈,進行到晚上7:00才結束。於活動開始之前,參與者也與北京謀智網絡的董事長暨執行長宮力博士交換意見;活動結束之前,謀智網絡的社區推廣經理張羽女士,也跟與會者分享了 Mozilla 基金會的 DrumbeatHackasaurus 等推廣專案。

這次能夠參與這項CC沙龍交流活動,我們特別感謝知識共享中國大陸項目負責人王春燕教授的邀請、以及項目經理朱捍東先生的安排(朱捍東先生所攝活動照片)。

CC Salon @ Mozilla Online (Beijing)
CC Salon @ Mozilla Online (Beijing).

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站

2011-09-26

第9屆兩岸三院信息技術與應用交流研討會(報告)

We regret this entry is not available in English.


中國科學院計算機網絡訊息中心、中國社會科學院計算機網絡中心、以及中央研究院計算中心自2002年起,每年皆籌辦資訊技術相關的交流研討會,輪流於中國大陸以及台灣舉行,由三個中心接續承辦。2002年由中國科學院計算機網絡訊息中心承辦首屆會議,於北京召開。除2003年因為SARS的緣故,未能如期舉辦之外,至今年已是第九次舉辦,算是輪過三回了。去年的「兩岸三院資訊技術交流與數位資共享研討會」,在台北舉行,由中央研究院計算中心承辦。今年的「第9屆兩岸三院信息技術與應用交流研討會」於2011年8月22-26日在中國長春舉行,由中國社會科學院計算機網絡中心承辦,中國吉林省社會科學院協辦。兩次我都參加了。本屆的會議中央研究院由近代史研究所特聘研究員,同時也是資訊科技創新研究中心的數位典藏內容與技術專題中心執行長陳永發先生領隊,共有23人與會,提報20篇論文。

研討會的日程安排如下:22日為開幕式、合影、三院主題報告(3篇報告)、大會報告(6篇報告);23日全日以及24日早上為雙軌議程,分別就「信息技術與應用」、「科研環境信息化建設」、「GIS與應用」、「信息社會」、「信息資源開發與信息管理」等主題報告。24日下午以及25、26兩日另安排有會議參訪行程。歷屆會議雖然由三院的計算中心主辦,但報告人並不限於三院的計算中心人員,與主題相關的三院各研究所、中心的多位研究(技術)人員也參與報告,有擴大交流的效果。這次會議中央研究院的報告題目與報告人,除有部份指定之外,還有部分是公開徵求而來,議題相當多樣。據說中國大陸方面也是部份採公開徵求方式。

這次報告的一些題目,個人覺得有一些探索、一些新意,算是相當開放。例如,「推動以實證為基礎的管理」、「網絡環境中的文學媒體化發展歷程探索」、「公部門資訊的自由取得與再次利用」、「信息技術對學術研究的倫理挑戰」、「基於制度經濟學的信息共享政策初探」、「維基百科的歷史與實踐」、「社會化的科研協作平台:從信息的組織到傳播」,這都是很有意思的題目,個人也得到一些收穫。不過我發現有一篇論文「互聯網對當下中國公共領域建設的影響」,雖然收錄在論文集裡,不知為何並未安排口頭報告,令人覺得可惜與納悶。對岸領導們的報告,多偏向政策宣告方式;會議開幕式時候,除三院領導(代表)人講話之外,中國吉林省委常委、省委宣傳部部長也在座講話。這對我個人來說,也算是新鮮事。這次會議,我認為在報告人的表現方面,年輕一輩的勝過領導階層(兩岸皆是);在報告的內容上,台灣方面一般說來比較踏實,中國大陸方面一般說來比較前瞻,不過都有例外情形。

這次的會議參訪行程,安排也是很有趣味。24日下午先是安排到「中國末代皇帝愛新覺羅・溥儀充當偽滿州國傀儡皇帝的行宮——偽滿皇宮」參觀;25、26兩日則安排到吉林省延邊朝鮮族自治州安圖縣的二道白河鎮,登長百山北坡看天池。延邊朝鮮族自治州的居民多為「朝鮮族」,使用韓語與漢語兩種語言,市鎮招牌也多是雙語。加上這屆會議的地點,選在1948年第二次國共內戰時,為期五個月、餓死60萬人「長春圍困戰」的所在,個人覺得也是有些意思。

過去在台灣舉行兩岸三院的交流會議時,三次地點都是在台北中央研究院,我相信對於來自對岸的同行,應該已是不感到新奇與吸引力。或許下一回由中央研究院計算中心承辦時,會議地點可以考慮換到台南市(明鄭王國與荷蘭交戰所在、希拉雅族原居地),參訪行程或許就安排到烏山頭水庫看一下八田與一的大壩工法,也安排去南投縣南仁愛鄉霧社事件所在地,賞櫻花並觀看《賽德克.巴萊》電影吧。

Dort shorts line-up.
長北山

註:摘自2011年9月繳交給中央研究院的出國報告表。

2011-02-23

Now Is A Good Time to Read!

The Spring time is a not good time to read? Certainly not! Here are four recent publications which are sure to entice your reading interest. They are respectively on Creative Commons Licenses, Public Sector Information, Public Domain, and Open Access. Two are in English and two are in Chinese. Please see below their abstracts and the links to the full papers. Enjoy!

  1. Melanie Dulong de Rosnay, Creative Commons Licenses Legal Pitfalls: Incompatibilities and Solutions. Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam & Creative Commons Nederland. September 2010.

    Abstract:

    Creative Commons licenses have been designed to facilitate the use and reuse of creative works by granting some permissions in advance. However, the system is complex with a multiplicity of licenses options, formats and versions available, including translations into different languages and adaptation to specific legislations towards versions which are declared compatible among each other after an international porting process. It should be assessed whether all ported licenses cover exactly the same subject matter, rights and restrictions or whether small language differences may have an impact on the rights actually granted and legal security of current users or the availability of works for future generations to access and build upon. Besides, other possible sources of legal uncertainty and incompatibility, as well as their actual or potential consequences, need to be evaluated, such as the validity and enforceability of the licenses across jurisdictions with different and possibly inconsistent legislations, the variations between the licenses summary and the licenses text written in legal language, the interoperability with other copyleft licenses. This study presents the different licenses (chapter 2), identifies various possible sources of legal incompatibility (chapter 3), evaluates their actual impact (chapter 4) and finally proposes options to mitigate risks and improve compatibility, consistency, clarity and legal security (chapter 5). (Melanie Dulong de Rosnay)

  2. Paul F. Uhlir, rapporteur, et al., The Socioeconomic Effects of Public Sector Information on Digital Networks. National Academies Press, USA. 2009.

    Abstract:

    While governments throughout the world have different approaches to how they make their public sector information (PSI) available and the terms under which the information may be reused, there appears to be a broad recognition of the importance of digital networks and PSI to the economy and to society. However, despite the huge investments in PSI and the even larger estimated effects, surprisingly little is known about the costs and benefits of different information policies on the information society and the knowledge economy.

    By understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the current assessment methods and their underlying criteria, it should be possible to improve and apply such tools to help rationalize the policies and to clarify the role of the internet in disseminating PSI. This in turn can help promote the efficiency and effectiveness of PSI investments and management, and to improve their downstream economic and social results.

    The workshop that is summarized in this volume was intended to review the state of the art in assessment methods and to improve the understanding of what is known and what needs to be known about the effects of PSI activities. (Paul F. Uhlir, rapporteur, et al.)

  3. Tai-Jan Huang, The Other of Intellectual Property and Its Resistance: Public Domain and Creative Commons. Master Thesis, Department of Law, College of Law, National Taiwan University. August 2010. (In Chinese)

    Abstract:

    Facing the expansion of intellectual property in the late twentieth century, supporters of public domain often viewed creative commons licenses as a private action to resist the second enclosure and build their own public domain. Lawrence Lessig, founder of creative commons, defined creative commons as an "effective public domain" that aims to realize the vision of free culture. However, some scholars and activists have criticized the fuzziness of creative commons' ideology. From their point of view, creative commons is more like a copyright license than a public domain, a submission to property discourse than a subversive resistance. In this dissertation, I explored this issue through the concepts of "discourse" and "the other" borrowed from critical studies and post-colonial theory. Specifically, I analyzed the texts of "intellectual property discourse" in a critical historical approach. In this way, we might have more insight about the relationship between creative commons and intellectual property discourse.

    By exploring the formation and development of intellectual property discourse in England and U.S.A., I pointed out its function in soothing the anxieties of intellectual property rights holders, who more likely be capitalists than creators, and its structural embedded contradiction. Specifically, although "original genius" as an idea image of authorship repeatedly emerges when it come to the justification of proprietor exclusive and despotic power over its private property, to be a proprietor of an "original" work only needs to be a copier with bad eyesight who is incapable of making a perfect copy. The dichotomy of "private" expression and "public" ideas also plays a same role in soothing the anxieties of intellectual property rights holders while continually expanding the scope of their rights. In addition, the other of intellectual property — public domain — becomes an synonym of knowledge wasteland and commons of tragedy in which everyone suffers. This provides a further justification for the institution of intellectual property.

    Under the rule of Kuomintang government before it lifted its martial law, Taiwan's Copyright registration system, in which creators need to register its work to acquire copyright, had long be an content-based speech regulation. Although we may doubted its significance in regulating speech compared to publication law, it seems that to some degree government regarded speech with a copyright "license" as a symbol of lawful speech. Instead of arguing from the perspective of free speech, lawyers, scholars and "Copyright Owners Association of Republic of China" tended to invoke intellectual property discourse. They argued that owing to the fact that copyright is a natural right, the copyright registration system unduly limited property rights secured by Constitution. In 1985 Copyright Act, Taiwanese work no longer need to registered to acquired copyright. Although intellectual property discourse played an vital role in this legal reform, it also reinforced the status of public domain of being the other. Because no one has a exclusive right over public domain, the Taiwan High Court think it is unnecessary to confirm its legal status. Furthermore, when U.S.A. demanded Kuomintang government to let their public domain movies regain copyright protection by applying new copyright act's copyright duration, the activists who against this proposal couldn't appeal to rights discourse because they had "no rights" in public domain work.

    In addition, from the two case studies, unauthorized books and computer programs in Taiwan, I argued there are two notable phenomenons when it comes to the resistance to of intellectual property discourse: submission in seemly resistance and resistance by acknowledging some elements of intellectual property discourse. In intellectual property discourse, the dichotomy between public domain and intellectual property also represents an evolution from barbarian to civilized, lawless to order, undeveloped to developed. In this vein, some "resistance" in Taiwan premised on this linear evolution theory, arguing the "modern" intellectual property law is too early for undeveloped and primitive Taiwan to adopt. On the other hand, owing to the fact that there are structural embedded contradiction in intellectual property discourse, we could see some lawyer and scholars who were familiar with intellectual property discourse, adopted a subversive strategy by acknowledging some elements of intellectual property discourse.

    We could also see this complex submission and resistance relationship between creative commons and intellectual property discourse. By acknowledging the primacy of "author," creative commons regarded itself as a tool to replace the intermediaries. However, there are some pitfalls in this strategy. Without re-imagine the idea of authorship, instead of voicing out dissents and alternatives, creative might replicate the intellectual property discourse, especially in Taiwan where creative commons is more like a promotion aided by government than a grassroots movement. Thus, in this dissertation, I propose an concept of "cultural common property" in the lens of "inter-dependent participative authorship in cultural landscape" to rethink the future of creative commons and information environment movement. (Tai-Jan Huang)

  4. Ted Lau et al., Prospect of Open Access. Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan. October 2010. (In Chinese)

    Preface:

    Open Access is a new model in scholarly communication that has increasingly caught the attention of governments in many countries. It is an attempt to provide to the academics and the society with free, direct, and more timely academic papers and information. In the US, since 2008 SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) together with other academic and research libraries have designated one week in October as the Open Access Week. In Taiwan we could not possibly be outside of this international trend. Although there have been several workshops on Open Access in Taiwan, and scholars have been publishing papers in related areas, however, there is yet to have a monograph on this subject. This report is the first among the publications in Chinese in our country that investigates the theme of Open Access. Its coverage is broad and comprehensive. In addition to addressing issues on open access to academic research papers which traditionally have been emphasized by the librarian community, this report also writes about a newer concept — Open Data. It also introduces the technical infrastructure of Open Access which shall be useful for our understanding about the development and opportunity of the Open Access movement. This report is also the first among the publications of the Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center (STPI), National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL), to be released under a Creative Commons License. As such, itself is a demonstration of the Open Access innovation. (This is an abridged translation of the Chinese preface by Bou-Wen Lin, the director of STPI, NARL, for the report.)

Note: This entry was first posted at the Creative Commons Taiwan web site.


春天就是讀書天!

誰說春天不是讀書天?在這裡跟大家介紹四本近期的論文和報告,其中兩本以英文撰寫,兩本是中文的,主題分別與創用CC授權的法律分析、公部門資訊的再次使用、文化共有財產的回顧省思、以及開放近用的趨勢發展相關。在此也簡短介紹一下作者。Melanie Dulong de Rosnay 是法國CC計畫的啟始人,目前在荷蘭阿姆斯特丹大學研究,也加入了荷蘭CC計畫的團隊,她的論文《創用CC授權的法律缺失:不相容性以及解決方式》對創用CC授權的法律實務議題,進行了系統性的分析。Paul F. Uhlir 是美國國家科學院的主任,他所編寫的《數位網路中公部門資訊的社會經濟效益》是2008年一場關於公部門資訊的研討會彙編,涵蓋了來自美國、加拿大、德國、英國、荷蘭、義大利、澳洲等各國專家的分析報告。黃泰然的碩士論文《智慧財產的他者及其抵抗:公共園地與創意共用》檢視西方智慧財產論述的發展,討論戰後台灣著作註冊審查制度,並省思創意共用與資訊環保運動的定位與未來。劉聰德等人的《開放近用的機會與展望》,探討開放近用運動的現狀與趨勢,是財團法人國家實驗研究院所屬科技政策研究與資訊中心的研究報告。

以下分別列出全文的連結與摘要,以饗讀者:

  1. Melanie Dulong de Rosnay, Creative Commons Licenses Legal Pitfalls: Incompatibilities and Solutions 《創用CC授權的法律缺失:不相容性以及解決方式》. Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam & Creative Commons Nederland. September 2010.

    摘要:

    創用CC授權條款以事先授予許可權利的設計,方便了著作的利用與再次使用。然而這是套繁複的系統:有多樣的授權條件、格式、與版本,其中包括翻譯為多種語言、適用各特定法律體系的版本;在多國移植過程 (international porting process) 之後,各版本被宣告為彼此相容。必須評價的是:這些授權條款的所有移植版本是否涵蓋相同的客體、權利、與限制?還是語言上的小差異會影響所授予的權利,而對授權條款的使用者、或是對所授權作品在以後的使用增修上,會有法律安定性的問題?此外,對於法律不確定性與不相容性的其他可能來源,其實際或可能後果,也需要加以評估。例如,因著不同司法管轄區不同甚至不一致的法律體系,而有授權條款有效性與可執行性的議題;授權標章文字與授權條款文本差異的議題;以及與其它著佐權 (copyleft) 授權條款在相容性的議題等。本研究呈現不同版本的授權條款(第二章),評價它們的實際影響(第四章),最後並提出方案,以減低風險並增進相容性、一致性、清晰性、以及法律的安定性(第五章)。(筆者譯自 Melanie Dulong de Rosnay 原著中的英文摘要)

  2. Paul F. Uhlir, rapporteur, et al., The Socioeconomic Effects of Public Sector Information on Digital Networks 《數位網路中公部門資訊的社會經濟效益》. National Academies Press, USA. 2009.

    摘要:

    世界各國政府雖然在公部門資訊 (Public Sector Information, PSI) 的公開發佈和再次使用上作法各有不同,但似乎都體認到數位網路以及公部門資訊對經濟和社會的重要性。然而,儘管在公部門資訊上的巨大投資,以及可預期的更大效益,我們對於不同資訊政策在資訊社會以及知識經濟上的成本效益議題,知道的其實很少。

    目前已有一些評價方法以及其所依據的標準,經由瞭解它們的強項和弱點,應該可以增強並應用這些工具,將政策合理化,並釐清網際網路在傳佈公部門資訊的角色。因此也更能在投資與管理公部門資訊這方面,增進效率與效用,提昇下游的經濟和社會成果。

    此次研討會的討論集結為本書的用意,就在於回顧目前的評價方法,並增進我們對公部門資訊在效用上的現有以及該有的瞭解。(筆者譯自 Paul F. Uhlir 等人原著中的英文摘要)

  3. 黃泰然。《智慧財產的他者及其抵抗:公共園地與創意共用》。國立臺灣大學法律學院法律學系 碩士論文。2010年8月。

    摘要:

    在智慧財產的圈地浪潮下,創意共用(creative commons)被許多公共園地(public domain)的支持者認為是拯救與擴大公共園地的行動方案。一手促成創意共用的 Lawrence Lessig 更以為創意共用授權在技術上雖然沒有擴大公共園地,但這種展示分享的「實質公共園地」,將有助於自由文化的實現。儘管如此,不少論者指出以智慧財產為基礎,強調作者自由選擇的創意共用授權,反而是深化了財產權的意識,從而鞏固了Lessig所反對的允准文化。究竟,創意共用是對智慧財產的抵抗還是認同?是促長了自由文化,還是允准文化?就此問題的回答,本文嘗試以在文化研究與後殖民研究中,常見的「論述」(discourse)與「他者」(the other)的理論概念,透過批判性的歷史檢視,去看見創意共用它所抵抗與認同的對象 — 智慧財產論述。本文認為透過此種取徑,我們將可以更清楚地了解創意共用與智慧財產論述的關係,乃至其與過去抵抗策略的相同與差異,從而在歷史的縱深下,去思考可能的方向。

    首先,本文會以英美的歷史發展為經,去探討智慧財產論述的形成過程以及其特色與作用。 本文認為自安妮法案,這個一般認為是第一個保障作者的著作權法開始,其所提示的其實是書商或者後來的資本家,如何透過環繞在「作者」形象上的論述,去正當化其就智慧財產的權利/力行使。這些論述往往是矛盾與斷裂的,但就其服務於資本家的利益而言,卻是必要的。 思想與表達的公共與私有的二元區分,也有同樣的功能。而作為智慧財產的他者,公共園地則被描繪為知識的荒原,從而證立了智慧財產的必要性。

    在批判性地檢視西方智慧財產論述的發展與作用後,本文將討論戰後台灣註冊審查制度的發展。此一註冊審查制度在戒嚴時期的台灣,屬於輔助性的言論管制。而訴諸智慧財產論述中私有財產權利的講法,是註冊審查制度在1985年可以改為創作取得主義的主要推力之一。 但是,智慧財產論述的移植與深化,也使得公共園地成為權利的他者,成為一個因為沒有人「所有」,所以不能被確認之訴確認存在的「荒地」;而在美國八零年代堅持將進入公共園地的「十年舊片」,重新予以著作權保護的例子中,我們也可以發現錄影帶業者即使感覺到他們的「權利」被侵害了,但進入法律的語言,他們只能訴諸法安定性與國法尊嚴的民族情感,反而是圈地者可以主張個人權利的保障應從新從寬。

    此外,從西書翻印與電腦軟體著作權保護的兩個案例切入,我會討論「抵抗中的認同」與「認同中的抵抗」兩種現象。在智慧財產與公共園地的文明/原始、進步/落後、開發/未開發、繁榮/荒涼、秩序/海盜二元對應的演化關係中,公共園地被看做落後、野蠻與原始的他者,而智慧財產則是先進、法治與現代的理想的我。戰後台灣的一些「抵抗」論述,其成立前提反而是「認同」此一二元對應關係 — 主張台灣還屬「落後」國家,因此「先進」國家如美國的法律,尚不適合台灣「國情」。另一方面,因為智慧財產論述的內部存在著許多潛藏的矛盾與緊張。因此,在逐漸熟悉西方智慧財產理論的台灣,也開始有論者,在「認同」智慧財產論述內的法理前提下,「抵抗」美國等西方中心國家所排定的議程。

    發源於美國的創意共用授權,與智慧財產論述之間,同樣也有複雜的認同與抵抗關係。本文認為就中介人與作者的利益矛盾而言,創意共用採取的即是在「認同」作者權利下,予以拆解的「抵抗」策略;但是,此種「認同中的抵抗」,因為創意共用未從內部重新想像智慧財產,反而是複製的智慧財產論述的話語,因此很容易變質為「抵抗中的認同」,特別是在缺乏由下而上的運動力量的台灣,更係如此。因此,本文嘗試從「文化景觀裡互相依賴的參與式作者」(inter-dependent participative authorship in cultural landscape)的理念出發,提出「文化共用財產」(cultural common property)的概念,重新省思創意共用與資訊環保運動的定位與未來。(黃泰然)

  4. 劉聰德、張朝欽、梁晉嘉、謝青宏、任孝祥、林聖勇、林康藝、蔡艾玲。《開放近用的機會與展望》。財團法人國家實驗研究院 科技政策研究與資訊中心2010年10月。

    序:

    在知識經濟的時代,知識密集的研究活動扮演著日益重要的角色,各國政府除了重視基礎科學水準的提升,也希望研究成果有效流通,以激發創新與加值,更提昇國際社會整體的科技發展與進步。學術資訊與知識的自由流通,以及學術文獻無障礙地交流,一直是追求卓越學術研究者的理想。從十七世紀紙本學術期刊的初步形成、學術社群的信件來往,到二十一世紀電子化學術期刊成為常態的出版方式以及數位圖書館的進步,學術溝通的媒介和形式不斷地演進,政府學術相關的決策者不能不正視這個種變化,加以瞭解、輔助和引導,特別是在創新密集的時代,學術溝通更須加速,研究成果必需更加直接地和無時差地在整體社會中交流。

    「開放近用 (open access)」是近年來逐漸為各國政府所重視的一種學術溝通的創新模式,試圖在資訊化社會的數位環境中,提供給學術界和整體社會免費的、直接的和更加即時的學術文獻和資訊。美國的「學術出版與研究聯盟(SPARC)」並於2008年結合其它的學術圖書館組織,明訂每年的10月中旬的一個星期為「開放近用週」,台灣亦當無自外於國際學術發展潮流。過去,國內學界雖曾舉辦過開放近用研討會,學者亦曾發表過開放近用的論述於各期刊,但尚無專書出版。本書為國內中文書籍中,首次以探討開放近用為主題的專書,內容廣泛並完整,除了傳統圖書館界所推動著重於學術論文的開放近用,還引進了較新興的開放資料 (open data) 觀念,並介紹了開放近用的技術基礎,有助於國人瞭解開放近用運動的發展和機會,並接軌國際思潮。此外,本書亦為科技政策研究與資訊中心的出版品中,首次採用創用CC授權的出版刊物,為開放近用的創新模式做了一種示範。(財團法人國家實驗研究院 科技政策研究與資訊中心 林博文主任序)

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站

2011-02-10

Free Access to and Re-use of Public Sector Information

We regret this entry is not available in English.


公部門資訊的自由取得與再次使用

政府部門和公有企業因為本身在運轉經營上的需要,會持續生產大量的資料與文件。這些資訊一般稱為「公部門資訊」(PSI, Public Sector Information)。根據「經濟合作與發展組織」(OECD)的定義 [1],公部門資訊具有以下的特質:「公部門因為其功能而直接產生(例如氣象資料,經濟統計)、以動態連續方式產生、而且可以直接用於商業應用」。這些資料包括地理空間資料、人口統計、健康醫療資訊、社會經濟指標、科學研究資料庫等。許多這些資訊不僅是公共出資的研究產出,對研究者也有很大助益。公部門資訊目前常以數位的方式呈現,有些還可以在網路上直接取得,也因為這些資訊的普遍價值,許多國家的政府也逐漸評估、推廣其使用。本文以下將介紹公部門資訊在開放使用上的國際趨勢與作法。

我國著作權法第九條,「憲法、法律、命令或公文」不得為著作權保護之標的。其中所稱的公文,「包括公務員於職務上草擬之文告、講稿、新聞稿及其他文書」。另外,我國政府資訊公開法第五條,「政府資訊應依本法主動公開或應人民申請提供之」,其中所稱的政府資訊,「指政府機關於職權範圍內作成或取得而存在於文書、圖畫、照片、磁碟、磁帶、光碟片、微縮片、積體電路晶片等媒介物及其他得以讀、看、聽或以技術、輔助方法理解之任何紀錄內之訊息」。不過,著作權法所稱之公文,在性質上應屬靜態的行政歷往紀錄,不盡是動態連續產生的性質。同時,政府所公開或提供的資訊在人民取得之後,是否可自行使用於任何其他用途,似未有明確的規範。

美國的著作權法規定,聯邦政府雇員在工作上產出的著作皆屬於公有領域(Public Domain),事實上,美國聯邦政府本身即是公有領域最大的生產者之一。美國行政管理和預算局(OMB, Office of Management and Budget)的 A-130 號通告,對於美國政府資訊的流通使用設立了一般性的原則,並鼓勵政府部門以邊際成本(亦即資訊提供這項工作本身的成本),來提供政府資訊;若是於線上提供,就應該免費 [2]。而歐盟、英國、澳洲和部份國家,對政府部門的著作產出以及許多公部門資訊,大多主張著作權利保留,這與美國非常不同。歐盟對於資料庫另有 96/9/EC 號指令給予法律保護,形成公部門資訊在自由使用上的障礙,而資料庫在美國與我國並無類似法律保護。雖然歐盟對於公部門資訊,也提出 2003/98/EC 號指令,鼓勵其再次使用,但一般認為,相較於歐盟等國家,美國在資訊服務的快速發展(如 Google Map 線上地圖等加值服務),和公部門資訊(如聯邦政府所產出的地理空間資料)在美國歸屬於公有領域,可自由取得、再次使用,有相當的關聯。

公部門資訊的開放使用,除了有助於資訊服務產業以及新市場的發展,這些資訊本身也能增進市場的透明和效率,有利個人成為社會經濟活動的積極參與者,並促進相關研究工作的進行。除了在經濟層面上直接與間接的好處之外,公部門資訊的即時與正確發佈,也是公部門行政效率的一種指標;公部門資訊可被自由取得和使用,也是政府體制透明負責的表徵,人民當家作主的例證。也因此在政治與政策層面上,美國、英國、澳洲、紐西蘭等民主國家正大力推展公部門資訊的開放與使用。

美國歐巴馬總統於2009年上任後,在給行政部門首長的「透明與開放政府」備忘錄中,指出政府是透明的、政府是參與的、政府是協力的 [3]。美國行政管理和預算局,也於2009年12月發佈「開放政府指令」 [4],要求各行政部門採行以下的步驟:一、線上發佈政府資訊,二、增進政府資訊的品質,三、建立並制度化開放政府的文化,四、建立政策架構以促成開放政府。這項指令的立即成果是 data.gov , 這個網站上有來自各行政部門的公部門資訊,都用開放格式整理紀錄。隨著「開放政府」(Open Government)的政策倡議 [5][6][7],不僅在美國,在英國(data.gov.uk)、澳洲(data.australia.gov.au)、紐西蘭(data.govt.nz)等國家,公部門資訊在開放使用的實務工作上,都獲得廣泛的重視與進展。值得注意的是,英國、澳洲、紐西蘭等國家,因為公部門資訊大多受著作權或是資料庫權利保護,所以在政策與實務作法上,這些國家的政策都鼓勵政府部門採用創用CC授權條款,尤其是最寬鬆的創用CC「姓名標示」授權條款,來釋出公部門資訊。

公部門資訊的開放使用,不僅只是在中央政府的層級,許多地方政府,也都有公部門資訊入口網站,例如,倫敦(data.london.gov.uk)、舊金山(datasf.org)、以及溫哥華(data.vancouver.ca)等。民間組織則如美國的公有資源組織(Public.Resource.Org),英國的開放知識基金會(Open Knowledge Foundation),以及歐盟的公部門資訊平台(European Public Sector Information Platform),也都持續關注這方面的議題。

以上介紹了國際上公部門資訊在開放使用上的趨勢與作法,在本文的最後,回到台灣的現況,筆者想試著提出幾個問題:請問您瞭解台灣公部門資訊的取得與使用方式嗎?如果您關心規劃中的石化工業區對周圍環境的影響,想自行或是委託顧問公司進行環境影響評估,而必須整批取得內政部掌有的地圖資料 [8]、環保署的空氣品質監測資料 [9]、以及中央氣象局的氣候監測資料 [10],自行整合進行模型建立與模擬,您認為在資訊的取得以及再次使用上,在這個例子上,會是容易還是困難呢?

註:本文先前已登在第五十六期《創用CC電子報》(2010年12月3日發刊),並同時刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站


[1] OECD. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information and Content. ^

[2] Nancy Weiss. Overview of U.S. Federal Government Information Policy. Appear as Chapter 2 in, Paul F. Uhlir, Rapporteur, The Socioeconomic Effects of Public Sector Information on Digital Networks. ^

[3] Barrack Obama. Transparency and Open Government. ^

[4] Peter R. Orszag. Open Government Directive. ^

[5] Lindsay Tanner. Declaration of Open Government. ^

[6] New Zealand Government Open Access and Licensing (NZGOAL) framework. ^

[7] International Open Government Data Conference. November 15-17, 2010, Washington, D.C., USA. ^

[8] 內政部,國土測繪中心^

[9] 行政院環境保護署,空氣品質監測網^

[10] 中央氣象局^

2010-02-17

Route 61

By chance we took on Route 61 on the first day of the lunar year. We were visiting Fort Zeelandia, and thought it would be interesting to drive north to Taichung from there on Route 61. Route 61 is the West Seaside Expressway; some segments are not yet finished. The route goes through some "inland sea" (lagoon) and passes many small land areas developed for fish farming. There was little traffic, and the scene mostly solitary.

On Route 17, looking east on a bridge to Cigu Township.
On Route 17, looking east on a bridge to Cigu Township.
Turn right and you are onto Route 61, northbound. The stalls sell sea food and oyster snack.
Turn right and you are onto Route 61, northbound. The stalls sell sea food and oyster snack.
Looking west on Route 61. Sunset on the Taiwan Strait in a hour.
Looking west on Route 61. Sunset on the Taiwan Strait in a hour.
Very little traffic on Route 61.
Very little traffic on Route 61.
These road signs keep me oriented.
These road signs keep me oriented.
In Budai Township, I think. Inland Sea (Lagoon) oyster farming.
In Budai Township, I think. "Inland Sea" (Lagoon) oyster farming.
Route 61 is considered an express way, so there are over-passes now and then.
Route 61 is considered an expressway, so there are over-passes now and then.
It is getting dark, and no more photo.
It is getting dark, and no more photo.

2010-02-16

Road Trip to Kenting

Early this month we were on a road trip to Kenting. It is a semi-annual family trip we take in the winter break; the other in the summer. We drove south all the way to Kenting from Taipei, and stopped at Taichung, Meinong, and Kaohsiung; and on the return, at Tainan and again at Taichung. The kids had been to Kenting several times. They were less thrilled about the place. Still, Kenting continues to be a favorite of the family. As for myself, often I am in a better mood whenever going more southern than Taichung. This time it is of no exception.

These photos, I hope, capture the mood of the trip. It is not the full picture, of course. (We went to two hospitals, but I am not going to write about it.) It has been a fun trip.

These pictures were taken when I was not behind the wheel, mostly.
These pictures were taken when I was not behind the wheel, mostly.
The road not yet traveled: Highway 6 to Puli, then to Sun Moon Lake.
The road not yet traveled: Highway 6 to Puli, then to Sun Moon Lake.
Central Taiwan is a mix of agricultural and industrial scenes.
Central Taiwan is a mix of agricultural and industrial scenes.
Power networks crisscross road networks.
Power networks crisscross road networks.
Highway 3 goes through numerous tunnels.
Highway 3 goes through numerous tunnels.
A radio tower? I cannot be sure.
A radio tower? I cannot be sure.
Almost always stop at this rest area every time I am on Highway 3.
Almost always stop at this rest area every time I am on Highway 3.
The giant banyan tree in the rest area.
The giant banyan tree in the rest area.

We stayed at Kaohsiung for two days. We went to Rueifong Night Market in the first evening. We had been to Liouhe Night Market in Kaohsiung, so I expected Rueifong to be about the same. I was wrong. The feels are quite different. I cannot say that I like one over the other. Rueifong is very compact and too crowded; Liouhe has too many Japanese tourists. It is hard to have a personal favorite about night market.

My first time at Rueifong Night Market, Kaohsiung City.
My first time at Rueifong Night Market, Kaohsiung City.
A very popular place, it seems.
A very popular place, it seems.
Over exposed, but I like it.
Over exposed, but I like it.
The crowd, and the densely arranged stalls in the market.
The crowd, and the densely arranged stalls in the market.

The next day we went to Cijin Island, once a peninsula, just outside the Port of Kaohsiung. We went through the Cross Harbor Tunnel by car; last time we took the ferry. By car, we were able to explore more about Cijin.

Cargo ships lining up to enter Kaohsiung Port, as seen from Cijin Island.
Cargo ships lining up to enter Kaohsiung Port, as seen from Cijin Island.
The bikers at Cijin.
The bikers at Cijin
Laid back at Cijin.
Laid back at Cijin.
Every moment seems ever more relaxed at Cijin.
Every moment seems ever more relaxed at Cijin.

Kenting needs no word. Here are some photos.

Good morning, Kenting.
Good morning, Kenting.
Facing south from Nanwan Bay, Kenting.
Facing south from Nanwan Bay, Kenting.
Facing east from Longpan Park, Kenting.
Facing east from Longpan Park, Kenting.
A quite corner of Kenting; the bikers were there too.
A quite corner of Kenting; the bikers were there too.

A road trip, by its nature, asks to explore roads that, until now, have not been taken. I have circled Taiwan several times by car — it is a small island after all — but are often wondering about the roads not yet taken. The southern tip of Route 1, or at least some segments of it, was new to me and proves to be very memorable for this trip.

Heading north on Route 1. A Grandma Black Pearl Wax Apple and Mango shop.
Heading north on Route 1. A "Grandma Black Pearl Wax Apple and Mango" shop.
I like this view on Route 1 so much I stop my car. About to connect to Highway 3.
I like this view on Route 1 so much I stop my car. About to connect to Highway 3.

Note: There are 30 photos about the trip in this album.

2009-08-13

A Name to Remember

Morakot, 2009/08/07 at 05:25 UTC, when it started to bring record rainfall and heavy damage to Taiwan.

Morakot
Image: NASA/GSFC, MODIS Rapid Response.

要牢記的名字

莫拉克在 2009/08/07 05:25 UTC 的位置。它已開始在台灣帶來破紀錄的雨量與災害。

2009-08-05

Dialogue with Self

Dialogue with Self

與自己的對話

«Whale Island Uprising» CC-licensed

By chance I encountered this CD album titled «Whale Island Uprising: Declaration of Human Rights». What caught my eyes actually is not the reflective words on the cover of album package (my apology for the following inadequate translation):

In the Winter of 2008, the youth of the Whale Island gang first put together their voices. With their plain and pure passion, and their believe in equity and justice, they brought out these works to show they care!

Think — of all the lies in the media and politics, how would you look through the superficies and get to the truth?

Feel — in your wandering and loss, and the rigidity and constraints of the system, do you see yourself?

Watch — human rights ignored and by-passed, can you endure the inequities and the consequences?

Rather, it is the small CC BY-NC mark at the back of the album cover that I recognize by instinct. On the cover, there are also links to Amnesty International Taiwan and the Small Place Tour events. How would human rights and copyright rights connect in this CC-licensed CD produced by Gamaa Music?

The connection is that music societies in ten colleges in central and southern Taiwan, as well as many indie bands, collaborated in organizing more than 10 Small Place Tour concerts last year. Year 2008 is the 60th anniversary of the universal declaration of human rights. Amnesty International had been working with artists and musicians everywhere in giving small concerts, so as to reach out to people to care for worldwide human rights issues. This global campaign was called the Small Place Tour.

These concerts and the albums were not funded by Amnesty International; they were voluntary efforts by the participating artists and musicians. By using music to promote human rights, it was hoped that the message would touch upon more people. It is by this connection that I feel especially thankful that the «Whale Island Uprising» album is released under a CC license.

Note: This entry was first posted at the Creative Commons Taiwan web site.

CD album cover
Image: www.gamaamusic.com

《鯤島起義》以創用CC授權釋出

偶然的機會接觸到這張音樂專輯,叫做《鯤島起義之人權宣言》。牽引我眼睛的不是CD包裝盒側邊的冷冽文案:

2008的冬天,鯤島幫的青年首次集結發聲。以素樸的熱情,與對平等正義的信仰創作,搖滾對社會的關懷!

思索 — 在媒體政治操作的紛擾矯情謊言喧鬧洪流中,要怎麼看穿表面,回溯本質?

心疼 — 人們盲目追尋徬徨迷惘,被扭曲的體制規訓束縛,孤寂空洞中看不到自己。

看見 — 人權價值被忽略與輕蔑,導致社會問題叢生及資源分配的不公不義。

而是近乎「職業性」本能所瞄到、不起眼的創用CC授權標示。這張由迦鎷文化音樂國際有限公司發行的專輯,以「姓名標示 — 非商業性」方式釋出。

CD包裝盒上卻也同時標示了國際特赦組織台灣總會以及「小地方音樂季」 (Small Place Tour) 的網址。著作權與人權有關嗎?

原來這是去年底由中南部十所大專院校社團、以及台灣十多組獨立樂團發起,共同為人權發聲,巡迴演出十數場的紀念專輯。去年為了紀念世界人權宣言60週年,國際特赦組織以多場次、持續舉行、小型演唱會的方式,來呼喚普世大眾關注人權議題。這項全球的在地活動就稱為「小地方音樂季」。

這些演唱會、唱片不是由國際特赦組織出資舉辦或發行,而是由音樂人主動將他們的演出、作品與人權議題結合,以求能將觸角伸得更遠更深。而台灣的這張紀念專輯能以創用CC方式釋出,也就分外令人感念了。

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站

Taipei Held Meeting on Public Licensing of Scientific Data and Publications

Creative Commons Taiwan organized the Symposium on Common Use Licensing of Publicly Funded Scientific Data and Publications at Taipei, Taiwan, on March 27, 2009. The symposium was jointly organized by CODATA Taiwan, NARL Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center (STPI), Taiwan, and NRC Board on Research Data and Information, USA. The meeting was held in Academia Sinica, the host of Creative Commons Taiwan.

The symposium program, as well as the abstracts and slides of the presentations, is available at the symposium website http://scientificdata2009.creativecommons.org.tw/programme. The one day symposium consists of three sessions and one panel. The symposium touches upon the history of and the rationale for commons use of scientific data and publications (session 1), emphasizes the current practice and trend of common use licensing (session 2), and discusses the various issues and challenges faced by the scientific communities (session 3).

Joining from US at the symposium are Paul F. Uhlir from the National Academy of Sciences, Harlan J. Onsrud from University of Maine, and Kaitlin Thaney from Science Commons. Gene Hettel from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines, and whom the Creative Commons Taiwan team met at the Commons Crossroads meeting at Manila in February, also joins the symposium and gives a presentation on IRRI's new Creative Commons licensing policy for its scientific publications.

The Taiwanese speakers include Ted Lau (STPI), Ly-yun Chang, Kwang-Tsao Shao, and Eric Yen (all from Academia Sinica), Chau Chin Lin (Taiwan Forestry Research Institute), and Ming-Che Wu (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute). Ly-yun Chang gives an overview of the Survey Research Data Archive that has been collected and maintained at the Center for Survey Research, Academia Sinica. Shao and Lin discuss issues and challenges in sharing biodiversity data and publications, and present the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility.

The symposium was closed by a panel, chaired by D. T. Lee (Chairman of CODATA Taiwan), on policy issues in implementing common use licensing of scientific data and publications. The panelists consist of Paul F. Uhlir, Ted Lau, Harlan J. Onsrud, and Tyng-Ruey Chuang (Creative Commons Taiwan). They exchange thoughts on policy issues and examine potential policy instruments to actively enable the sharing of scientific data and publications.

Note: This entry was first posted at the Creative Commons Taiwan web site. The Chinese language text below of this entry is quite different from the English language text.

Image: scientificdata2009.creativecommons.org.tw (designed by Wen-Yi Chou)

科學資料的開放近用與自由流通

今年3月27日中央研究院舉行了一場「公共出資的科學資料與出版品的一般使用與授權」學術研討會。該會議邀集了不同領域的學者專家、公眾授權的倡議者與採用者、以及研究機構的策略規劃者,就科學資料與出版品的開放近用與自由流通,進行了廣泛的討論(詳見研討會網址,以及講者投影片)。

科學出版品(指可被視為著作的部份),在一般使用與公眾授權方面,已受到相當的重視。在觀念推展與實務作法上,無論是法律工具如創用CC授權條款,或是散布管道如採用開放近用 (Open Access) 的學術期刊及機構典藏庫 (Institutional Repository) 的建立,甚或是政策規範如美國〈國家衛生研究院公共近用政策〉 (‹NIH Public Access Policy›) 等各方面,目前已有許多可以借鏡、相互學習的地方。

科學資料(因進行科學研究而所蒐集產生的資料)的開放近用與自由流通,情況就比較複雜。資料 (Data) 以及資料庫 (Database) ,是否為受法律保護的客體,在不同國家有不同的法律規範。歐洲議會於1996年3月所通過的《資料庫之法律保護指令》 («Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases») ,對於資料庫給予法律保護,並認為對資料庫的權利是特有的 (sui generis) ,與對著作的權利不同,兩者分別受到保護。但在美國、台灣、以及其他許多國家,資料庫不被視為著作,不受到著作權法的保護,也未必以法律給予特有的保護。

使用創用CC授權條款來作資料的釋出,嚴謹來說並不合適,因為資料並不是受著作權法保護的客體。荷蘭 CC 計畫 (Creative Commons Netherlands) 在 進行 CC 授權條款本地化的過程裡,考量了歐盟資料庫保護指令的情形,對荷蘭版的 CC 授權條款,就做了一些調整。為了避免使用CC授權條款所釋出的著作,是否也可被視為是資料庫,而有適用上的疑慮,荷蘭版的 CC 授權條款裡,將著作本身的定義放寬到包括資料庫,以擴大該授權條款的適用的範圍。但在台灣以及其它(無資料庫保護法律的)國家,該國本地化的 CC 授權條款,目前並沒有(也不合適)作這些調整。

為因應科學資料在自由流通上的需要,最近 Creative Commons 正式發佈了一項稱為 CC0 (CC Zero) 的宣告。聲明人可使用 CC0 宣告,表示對所宣告的作品,不保留著作權及相關權利。這些著作權及相關權利,包括著作權利、資料庫權利、以及萃取使用該作品所內含資料等權利;聲明人也不對使用人作「姓名標示」或「相同方式分享」上的要求 [1]。 Creative Commons 希望透過 CC0 宣告,可以讓所宣告的著作和資料的流通使用更加自由,近一步擴展創意、文化、科學的共有領域。目前已有兩項計畫採用了 CC0 宣告,分別是 The ProteomeCommons.org Tranche network 以及 Personal Genome Project 。兩項都有關於生命科學的資料分享與使用。

科學資料的公眾釋出與一般使用,在散布管道與施行方法上,也較少有示範性或共通性的作為。為呈現學術研究的成果,研究者主要著重於論文的發表。用以佐證研究結果的原始資料的整理發佈,並不受到格外的重視。將原始資料清理成公眾可以獨立使用的格式,對研究者反而是額外的工作。(這讓人想到一則關於自由軟體的聽聞:有些程式開發者心理很願意釋出程式的原始碼,但最後沒能釋出,原因是覺得自己寫的程式有些醜,或是程式碼沒加註釋,覺得不好意思,但也沒時間修改了,所以就不釋出。)

一般的研究機構對其所蒐集產生的科學資料,通常在釋出政策上也不多作要求,在行政程序或是資訊技術上,也未必對研究者提供必要的協助。研究機構或是研究者本身,也常以智慧財產的角度,對科學資料的釋出,持保留的態度;當資料還沒被分析發表為論文之前,這些資料的開放近用與自由流通,尤其困難。但在現今的研究環境,能夠取得其他研究團隊的第一手原始資料,自由進行各種資料的整合、萃取、與分析,以互惠的精神協力合作,卻是非常的重要。分享觀測資料的虛擬天文台,已是常見的典範模式。

公共所出資的科學研究的產出(即使是原始資料),應該給所有公民(包括其他研究者)所使用,這在法律、政治、與倫理上,都有不可逃避的理由 [2]。民主國家中政府資訊公開,以及公共出資的科學產出的開放近用議題,也逐漸受到重視。有足夠的例證顯示,政府資訊(包括公共出資的科學資料)的公開對於社會經濟活動,相當有助益。一些研究報告就指出,相對於歐盟,美國聯邦政府採取較開放的方式,釋出所掌有的資料(如地理量測、即時氣象等原始資料),因此在相關產業的規模與發展(如地理資訊、氣象預報等服務),領先歐盟甚多。

對於科學資料與出版品的開放近用與自由流通,台灣在政策上並沒有特別的規範。雖然《科學技術基本法》的第二十條提到:「為推動科學技術研究發展,政府應擬訂科學技術資訊流通政策,採取整體性計畫措施,建立國內外科學技術研究發展之相關資訊網路及資訊體系」,但這似乎是高層次的宣示;個別研究機構對於其所產出的科學資料與出版品,是否釋出供一般使用,在作法上可能差異很大。以下簡要介紹兩項示範性的作為,供大家參考。

國科會的‹專題研究計畫執行同意書›,要求以調查法(如面訪、電話訪問、郵寄問卷等)進行計畫之主持人,應將「研究成果報告、資料讀我檔、空白問卷、過錄號碼簿、電腦資料數據檔、資料欄位定義程式等及調查資料檔案利用授權書」,送中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心調查研究專題中心。而該中心對所保管的調查資料,於一定時間後,釋出給國內外研究機構、大專院校的研究人員、教授或研究生使用。

2001年由行政院核定通過的「生物多樣性行動方案」中,明示應建置國家生物多樣性資訊中心,整合全國生物多樣性相關資料,促進研究、教育、及保育之功能。為此中央研究院已接受國科會與農委會部份經費補助,負責整合台灣生物多樣性的各式資料,並維運「台灣生物多樣性資訊入口網」 (Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, TaiBIF) 。該網站是台灣在「全球生物多樣性資訊機構」 (Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GBIF) 的入口網站,與其它參與 GBIF 的國家入口網站,進行生物多樣性資料的全球交換與分享。

以上兩項工作的內容與挑戰,請參見張苙雲、邵廣昭兩位研究員在3月研討會的介紹。科學資料的開放近用與自由流通,還有許多努力的空間,也需要大家的關注。

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站。此篇的中文內容和英文內容相當不同。


[1] Creative Commons, ‹CC0 FAQ›. ^

[2] Paul F. Ulhir, ‹The emerging role of open repositories for scientific literature as a fundamental component of the public research infrastructure›. In «Open Access: Open Problems», pp. 59-103, G. Sica (editor), Polimetrica, Torino, Italy (2007). ^

2009-03-31

Spring Arriving at Caoshan

We were at Caoshan ten days ago. What a refreshing trek!

Spring Arriving at Caoshan

Spring Arriving at Caoshan

Spring Arriving at Caoshan

Spring Arriving at Caoshan

草山之春

十天之前我們去了草山。沿途小徑多怡人!

MoShang Music and Ubuntu 9.04 Free Culture Showcase

The results of the Ubuntu 9.04 Free Culture Showcase have just been announced. MoShang (a.k.a. Jean Francois Marais) won the Audio category with his sound track ‹Invocation›. The winning entries in the Video and Graphic/Photo categories are from, respectively, Robbie Ferguson and William J McKee Jr. These works will be showcased in the "Examples/" directory in the upcoming Ubuntu 9.04 distribution. They are all released under a Creative Commons "Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0" license.

People who are into downtempo electronica probably know about and enjoy MoShang's tracks already, so MoShang Music hardly needs introduction. MoShang produced the highly acclaimed «Asian Variations» remix album in 2007, and co-produced with Pig Head Skin the collaborative music album «CABACA» in 2008. He also remixed and mastered Kou Chou Ching's double-CD award-nominated album «KOU!! It's Coming Out!!!». By the way, he is a "son-in-law of Taiwan" — a title Taiwanese fondly refer to the one who arrives from afar and gets married to one of their daughters. (Yes, someone was in their wedding just recently!)

The track ‹Invocation› is from his new EP «Stone Bell». MoShang also does live online mixes in Second Life, and is now putting up new online mixes at his website every week. Go find them and enjoy the mixes!

Note: This entry was first posted at the Creative Commons Taiwan web site.

Stone Bell
Image: stonebell.moshang.net
 
MoShang Live Online
Image: www.moshang.net

莫尚音樂與 Ubuntu 9.04 自由文化選拔活動

Ubuntu 9.04 自由文化選拔活動日前宣佈得獎者。其中的聲音項目由莫尚 (MoShang) 的 ‹Invocation› 一曲獲選。影像和圖像項目分別由 Robbie Ferguson 和 William J McKee Jr 的作品獲選。將於四月發佈的 Ubuntu 9.04 最新版本中,三項作品將收錄在其中的「範例」目錄,並以創用CC「姓名標示-相同方式分享 2.0」授權條款釋出供公眾使用。

許多電子音樂的愛好者對莫尚這位台灣女婿(是的,住在台灣的他幾周前才結了婚,有位台灣太太)的作品,應該都不會感到陌生。他於2007年製作的 «Asian Variations» 混音專輯深獲好評,2008年與朱約信共同製作了《卡巴卡》協力創作合輯(兩張專輯都使用創用CC授權)。拷秋勤的金曲獎入圍專輯《拷!!出來了!!!》,也是由他混音。

這次獲選的 ‹Invocation› 一曲收錄於他新近的 EP 專輯 «Stone Bell»。莫尚在 Second Life 每週有一次即時混音演出,目前他也陸續把這些演出的錄音檔在他的網站上釋出(採創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性 2.5 台灣」授權條款)。聽聽看,你會入迷!

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站

2009-03-03

Mazu Procession

By incident I walked across a Mazu procession, and I captured these pictures using my cellphone. Mazu and her believers in this procession are from the Songshan Cihyou Temple. Songshan Cihyou Temple was founded by the people in "the 13 streets and villages in Sihko" in 1757, according to the Temple's web site. To this day, the Temple still is a spiritual focal point for people living in the Songshan, Neihu, and Nangang districts in the Taipei city. It is an amazing feeling watching the Mazu procession going by, as if I am still a child and I am free as a kid.

Mazu procession

Mazu procession

Mazu procession

媽祖繞巡

偶然的我與媽祖繞巡的隊伍相遇,用手機拍下這些照片。繞巡的媽祖與她的信徒來自松山慈祐宮。根據慈祐宮的網站,慈祐宮是由「錫口十三街庄」的居民於1757年建造完成。直到今日,慈祐宮仍是台北市松山、內湖、南港區居民的心中要地。看著媽祖繞巡隊伍經過的感覺很奇特,好像我還是小孩子,無所憂慮。

2009-02-12

Volfoniq Remix Kou Chou Ching

Here is an interesting news from Kou Chou Ching, the hippest Taiwan traditional Hip Hop joint: The French artist Volfoniq has just released an EP «DUB'IN TAIWAN» collecting three mixes of their track ‹Your name is TAIWAN›. The album is released by the net label Les Cristaux Liquident (LCL) under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 license.

If you are a fan of Kou Chou Ching (like myself), you might notice that the third track in «DUB'IN TAIWAN» — ‹My dub is Taïwan: LCL edit› — is in Kou Chou Ching's double-CD album «KOU!! It's Coming Out!!!». It is the 12th track in the 2nd CD, which itself consists entirely of remixes made by friends of Kou Chou Ching based on their originals in the 1st CD. In «DUB'IN TAIWAN», however, Volfonig collaborated with Tribuman and Pier and made two new tracks: ‹Panique sur le dancefloor› and ‹Tsunamix›.

The net label Les Cristaux Liquident (LCL) is an artist collective based in Montpellier, France. From their website, they stated:

Les Cristaux Liquident considers the artistic creation as a raw material that can be reworked and whose original form can be adapted and changed. This way of apprehending art, alongside the open culture spirit, can give birth to new original creations that might be brought to evolve, transform, multiply…

All the artists releasing on LCL, have chosen the "Creative Commons" licence, a reliable way of avoiding abuses and attempts of artwork commercialization, without closing themselves to sharing practice.

Fearless open culture advocates and practitioners, indeed they are!

If you wish to enjoy more remixes of ‹Your name is TAIWAN›, you can listen to the mixes of Viba, DJ Jay Szu, and LTK Commune, which are collected as the 2nd, the 7th, and the 17th tracks in the 2nd CD of «KOU!! It's Coming Out!!!».

(Kou Chou Ching's original ‹Your name is TAIWAN› actually is also a mix: Their track mixed the legendary Chen Chou-Lin's ‹Moonlight Sighs› from the beginning!)

Note: This entry was first posted at the Creative Commons Taiwan web site.

Dub in Taiwan
Image: www.lescristauxliquident.org (used under a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 license)

〈汝介名,叫做台灣人〉 本尊分身七種版本

拷秋勤部格格捎來的消息:法國電音創作者 Volfoniq 新近出版 «DUB'IN TAIWAN» 網路專輯,只收錄〈汝介名,叫做台灣人〉一曲的三款法國風混音版。該專輯的樂風獨特,並且以創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-禁止改作 3.0」授權方式釋出,不僅值得仔細品嚐,還可以自由收藏、轉寄給朋友!

耳朵尖的讀者也許已發現, «DUB'IN TAIWAN» 專輯中的第三首 ‹My dub is Taïwan: LCL edit› ,其實已收錄於拷秋勤金曲獎入圍專輯《拷!!出來了!!!》,是第二片 CD (友情混音版)中的第十二首。 Volfonig 這次的專輯,另外邀請了 TribumanPier 兩位音樂人,分別再混音創作成 ‹Panique sur le dancefloor› 以及 ‹Tsunamix› 兩曲。

發行這張專輯的網路音樂品牌 Les Cristaux Liquident (LCL) 也是開放文化的倡議者與實踐者,他們的網頁上寫著

Les Cristaux Liquident 認為藝術作品是素材,可以被再次使用,原件的形式可以被沿用與更改。這種使用藝術的方式,以及所伴隨的開放文化精神,催生了新的、原創的的作品,而可以再演化、轉變、繁衍…。

所有在 LCL 發行的藝術家,都選擇「創用CC」授權條款:這是種避免遭到濫用和藝術品商業化的可靠方式,而且創作者也不會自外於分享的實務。

《拷!!出來了!!!》的第二片 CD 中,還另外收錄了三曲〈汝介名,叫做台灣人〉的混音版,分別由 Viba (第二首)、 DJ 小四 (第七首)、以及濁水溪公社(第十七首)所作。算一算,〈汝介名,叫做台灣人〉,本尊分身,共有七種版本呢!

(其實本尊也是混得很兇啊,一開始就用了陳秋霖先生創作的〈月夜嘆〉。沒聽過?就七種版本一起聽聽看吧!)

註:本文先前已刊於台灣創用CC計畫網站